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Sunday, 4 December 2016

Which Systemic Manifestations May Be Associated With Chronic Hepatitis B Infection?

Extrahepatic manifestations are generally believed to be immune-mediated. 

Polyarteritis Nodosa: rare, though serious. It affects small- and medium-sized vessels of multiple organ systems. Hepatic manifestations are usually mild. 

Treatment is a combination of antiviral and immunosuppressive therapies, with plasma exchange. 

HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (GN) : commonly in male children. It's usually self-limited , but may rarely progress to renal failure. In adults, the risk of progression to renal failure is higher.

Treatment: antiviral therapy.

Serum-sickness: in 30% of patients; with joint and skin symptoms

Onset of clinical hepatitis is associated with resolution of these symptoms, although arthritis may persist in some patients.

Mixed essential cryoglobulinemia : purpura, arthralgias and weakness. It may be complicated by nephritis, pulmonary disease and generalized vasculitis.

Skin manifestations: palpable purpura. 

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